Research on Open Data and Transparency

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New Article: Assessing Government Transparency: An Interpretive Framework


Authors: Albert Meijer, Paul ’t Hart, and Ben Worthy


How can we evaluate government transparency arrangements? While the complexity and contextuality of the values at stake defy straightforward measurement, this article provides an interpretative framework to guide and structure assessments of government transparency. In this framework, we discern criteria clusters for political transparency (democracy, the constitutional state, and social learning capacity) and for administrative transparency (economy/efficiency, integrity, and resilience). The framework provides a structured “helicopter view” of the dimensions that are relevant for a contextual assessment of transparency. An illustrative case discussion of the introduction of Freedom of Information (FOI) in the United Kingdom demonstrates its utility.

You can view a copy hereAdministration & Society-2015-Meijer-0095399715598341

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Who Is Using Open Data? Some More Thoughts



By their very nature users of open data are hard to track down. Looking at the most viewed and downloaded datasets for raises more interesting questions that it answers. There are a few interesting signs, such as the type of people and organizations requesting datasets from

My own research on local government publication of all spending over £500 tells us a little about who is using it. The findings are based on a mixture of FOI requests, surveys and interviews (you can see more stats here).

First, interest in the local spending data on local authority websites seems low. Based on Freedom of Information (FOI) requests to local authorities, the average number of page views was 200, pretty low compared to visits to other sites (note visits and page views are different):

Site Visits per month 540,609 161,101
TheyWorkForYou 200-300,000
WhatDoTheyKnow 100-200,000

(Sources: Escher 2011, 2011, 2013)

Second, those who are using it seem to be a rather diverse bunch. Here’s a comparison of users of FOI at local government level (from this report) and the spending data.

Estimated breakdown of requester groups: FOI and spending data (%) null

The biggest user group appears to be business. The data may be very useful for tenders, contacts or competitors. As Jo Bates points out here, this raises some interesting questions as to who ultimately benefits from open data. Businesses are also big users of FOI at local level, from small ‘one person’ companies to multi-nationals.

Another significant user group is media. Authorities reported a ‘flurry’ of interest from journalists but one that often died down. A search of regional newspapers found 148 articles specifically using the term ‘spending over £500’ between May 2010 and August 2012. The spending data was used to question authorities, focusing on odd spending at a low level, such as this.

NGOs made up just 5% of all users of the spend data. High profile campaigns in the London borough of Barnet sat alongside smaller more focused uses by community groups over particular salaries or contracts. There’s also been some interesting innovations with, for example, Shelter using open data to build a searchable portal on homelessness.

The public were supposed to be the beneficiaries of the new data. Exactly who the ‘public’ users are remains a bit of a mystery. Like FOI, they may be a hard core group of activists with a wider, looser group made up of the curious or those seeking very specific information. There are a few, but not many, Armchair Auditors, who have not yet moved from settee to spending data.

One problem is that all these discrete categories are all a little too neat. Research by Tim Davies on found a mixed group of activists and ‘techy’ people, where the campaigner and person were one and the same person.

Another problem is that the research only tells us about those directly using the sites. From what we know from communication theory, opinion formers pass on information to others. Who, if anyone, is this data trickling down to? Not all users are equal – a journalist can have thousands reading a story. More importantly, who is using the new apps that and sites such as Openly Local or, and the Local Government Association’s LG Inform tool?

So different groups are using it different ways. There is no ‘average’ or ‘person on the street’ data users. This makes the future of open data very unpredictable. Just as it should be.