Research on Open Data and Transparency

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Thanks to Thatcher? Where FOI Came from


Thtacher poster

Here’s a new paper on the development of FOI in Britain Ben Worthy Chapter for Felle Final


Before the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act of 2000, successive UK governments initiated a series of incremental openness reforms from the 1960s onwards. This process took place on two levels. At central government level, the debate began through growing pressure to reform the Official Secrets Act of 1911, which then transformed into discussion around access to information. At local government level, there was a more consistent and coherent opening up of access to meetings and decisions, with significant statutory access legislation passed each decade between 1960 and 2000.

Access to Information legislation, despite its powerful symbolism, is rarely a policy that attracts votes. It is frequently a ‘vote-less’ policy, exciting little electoral interest and reliant on media pressure, lobbying and a series of focusing events, helped intermittently by politicians pressured into action. As seen in other FOI regimes, in the UK the media helped provide the vital momentum. In the 1960s and 1970s, through highlighting (and inadvertently triggering) scandals, exposing secrecy in local and central government level and allying with a strengthening lobby group, the media continually kept openness on the political agenda. By the 1980s it formed part of a growing network, working with NGOs and MPs in pressuring for FOI. It remains a key defender, innovator and user of FOI (Hazell et al 2010).


Also here on SSRN





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RTI vs. FOI: New Paper Comparing FOI in the UK and RTI in India

RTI image

My draft article comparing the UK and India is hereBen Worthy Access to Information in India and the UK 2015.

It examines the impact of two pieces of transparency legislation: the UK Freedom of Information Act 2005 and the Indian Right to Information Act 2005. It looks at the origins and composition of the laws before examining how the two pieces of legislation function. Both laws have led to transparency and accountability by exposure and raising of ‘fire alarms’, with information disclosure used to bring about accountability as well as, to a more limited extent, reform and behaviour change. Of the two laws, the Indian RTI has proved more ‘politicised’ and more capable of initiating political participation. Yet the ‘transformative’ powers of such reforms are limited by poor implementation and resistance. Moreover, the effectiveness of such laws is shaped by context, with India in particular facing deep and complex socio-political obstacles that may prevent the laws having the ‘revolutionary’ effects advocates hoped.

Worthy, Ben, Access to Information in the UK and India (Jan 16, 2014). Available at SSRN: